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Jewish cemetery in Sevastopol .

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Residents, except for a small number of retired staff and senior officers , merchants and petty bourgeoisie , composed of employees , of whom the number is assumed to 20 thousand people, and Sevastopol have a real military town - so he wrote his visiting 1802 Sumarokov [1].

 

With the growth of the Black Sea fleet increased demand for working hands for the construction of ports , barracks, fortifications to protect the fleet , homes for families of officers , officials, merchants, and this has stimulated an influx of population . In 1853 , the beginning of the Crimean War , the population of Sevastopol has reached 42-45 thousand people [ 2].Along with Russian and Ukrainians lived in Sevastopol the Germans , Greeks, Armenians , Bulgarians , Karaite Jews, Krymchaks , Italians, Czechs , Estonians and others

 

At this time there were three in the town cemetery , two Orthodox and Jewish ( a Jewish ) cemetery at the height of the head in the Sugar Siltings [3].During the first defense of Sevastopol, this height was subjected to intensive artillery and rifle fire , as it were on lodgements Russian gunners, and a small cemetery was completely destroyed.

 

During the heroic 349- day defense of Sevastopol has been destroyed.In the first months of retirement from Anglo-French troops in the city began to return a few residents, but city life for a long time stood still. In 1861, the population of Sevastopol was only 4,500, that is one tenth of the prewar population of the city [4]. The city revived very slowly : in 1869 there were 5 .747 residents in 1875 - 12. 000, 1885 - 25. 000 ( the military ) in 1895 - 47. 683 people , 30 of them . 560 civilian . National Population Census in 1897 showed that the city had 45. 801 persons of the civilian population , of whom 6.5% were Jews (2195 persons) [5]. In the future, the Jewish population in the city did not exceed 6-7%.

 

A Place in the new Jewish cemetery was given immediately after the Crimean War in 1856. City Council it was decided to arrange a national cemetery next to the Orthodox cemetery in the area of ​​the beam.But in 1897 the Jewish community appealed to the Sebastopol City Council with a request for land for expansion prirezke cemetery as a place near ... Chersonesus road the cemetery is now almost all the graves already occupied [6]. Jewish, Karaite and Muslim ( Mohammedan ) cemeteries were located in the northwest mountains Rudolf .Jewish cemetery bordered on the Karaite . For the first time in the Jewish cemetery Rudolf mountains were deposited on a master plan for Sebastopol in 1887. The earliest surviving burial dates back to 1866.

 

great monuments of the Jewish cemetery damage caused earthquake September 12, 1927 , when it was destroyed most of the monuments and high rainfall , which took place in Sevastopol, September 1, 1928 .Cemetery and operated after the Second World War, however, the decision of the Executive Committee of the Sevastopol City Council to March 1, 1965 The Jewish and Karaite located near were closed [7]. Burials began to produce in the town cemetery , but with its closure in 1969 - at the new municipal cemetery on the 5th km of the Balaklava Road .

 

As a result of research conducted in 1990, recorded in 1772 at the cemetery graves with signs of grave structures, but only 547 of them can read the names of those buried . Almost 33% of the graves are marked only burial mounds .The surviving headstones researcher were divided into 10 types, which in turn can be divided into 25 groups .This gravestone in the form of a flower garden , set mainly in pre-revolutionary times , the horizontal gravestones in the form of plates with a plaque , with a varying elevation , in the form of stelae, pyramids or obelisks, as well as in the form of a sarcophagus, belonging to the most ancient. Researcher in the Crimea began H1H . P.Koeppen calls this type of Karaite humble tomb [8]. Found only in pre-revolutionary part of the cemetery . For more rare headstones include art and architecture in the form of dried wood, the Department of Talmud or a metal gazebo. At the cemetery, there are three vault.Unfortunately, at present cemetery is in disrepair and has not yet resolved the question of his accomplishment .

In the middle of the cemetery was a house - chapel ( the remnants of which survived to our time ), built and consecrated in the beginning of the century.Mayor and all those economic governance and burial fraternity , during his tenure which was built and consecrated this house ... It was celebrated prayer service , and then served the funeral was on a Bose deceased Emperor Alexander II and Alexander III ... During the singing of the choir was lit unquenchable lamp , installed in memory of valiant warriors,died in the war in the Far East, and the requiem was served ,Here's how to describe this event newspaper Crimean Journal of June 10, 1905 : Yesterday at 12:00 of the day was done the consecration of the Jewish cemetery at home. Hall has a domed ceiling funerals , covered with dark gray cloth on which is embroidered a picture representing the starry sky . On one wall is a marble hall with engraved names of the board , the

 

The remaining burials can be divided chronologically : pre-revolutionary and Soviet periods. Moreover, surviving only 7% of the graves belong to the pre-Revolutionary Graves (the figure is inaccurate , since part of the cemetery with the graves of pre-revolutionary heavily overgrown with bushes .)We found out that some of those buried were urban doctors, some - by merchants. Ilya Galperin Izrailevich merchant on the list of jurors in 1908 and had a property qualification 3000 rubles. In the same year he died in Berlin, but was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Sevastopol [9].During the Crimean War, born brothers Grinberga : in 1853 Srul Moiseevich, later a merchant, a juror [ 10], and in 1855 - Israel Moiseevich , who died in 1913 and was buried in a Jewish cemetery [11]. Large merchants, and the jurors were Zusman, P. and Isaac Leib Fayvelovich .Under the name of the cemetery are buried Goldberg five people who died at different times. United if their blood relationship , or they simply namesakes hard to say, but in the documents of the archive contains information about two brothers - Jurors in 1908: Goldberg, Shai and Yankel Bercovici .Both the merchant , 50 and 60 years respectively , literate , on trial were not their property qualification of 500 and 1,400 rubles [12].One of the brothers, Goldberg served as a clerk 5 years Krymchaks Yusufov James I. , who was 10 years old , orphaned , 11 years working at a tobacco factory in Karasubazar , and after its closure moved to Sebastopol from which evicted 3 times as having no rights of residence.But, nevertheless , all the rest of his life he has lived in Sebastopol, grown , raised seven children and taught them trades, and in 1920 five of them have worked in various cooperatives. My father , being engaged in trade in fruit in 1923 , and then helping in 1926-1927.engage in trade and other fruit merchant , Reuben , of course, regardless of the age of 57 , was deprived of voting rights, and to restore them was denied. He died on the 64th year of life before the war and buried in a Jewish cemetery [13].Rose Levy Krymchachku Iotovnu ( at the tomb of Sima Levi - Rose Antonovna ) deprived of voting rights in 1930 as a son-in - izhdivenku disenfranchised Izmerli AL When handed down the ruling, the 90- year-old woman was no longer alive.Born before the Crimean War , she died , according to the address table, August 12, 1929 ( on the tombstone the date of death - July 30) [14]. On the tombstone Ek Grigory Yakovlevich life dates are not specified.But according to archival documents, it can be assumed that he died no earlier than 1931, since his birth year - 1870 , and in 1930 he and his wife Sophia Borisovna , 1876 birth , was deprived of electoral rights of the former dealer . In a statement on the restoration of voting rights EH GYindicated that he was a furrier by trade and its products are not sold , and rented a pawnshop .Perhaps the crucial role played by the fact that he worked at the farm red garment , and witnesses also confirmed that they knew him as a lone craftsman , do not use hired labor, and April 25, 1931 KrymTsIK upheld his complaint by deleting from the list of disenfranchised persons [15] .Some of those who have been deprived of voting rights , who later killed or died during the defense of Sevastopol 1941-1942. , Were shot by the Nazis, or as a family Krimchaks Mangupli , died on the first day of the war [ 16].June 22, 1941 at the dawn of a German mines, which were thrown at the Sevastopol bay, hit the street Podgorny, where civilians were killed . Among them, family Krimchaks Mangupli - Joseph Isaakovich at age 52 and his wife, 47- year-old Sarah Anisimovna .According to archive documents the family's residence at number 34 on the street Podgornaya seen from the 1920s .It was during this period Joseph Isaakovich by profession chemodanschik , according to aid groups , claimed that the owner of the merchant is listed Mangupli grindery by the decision of the Sevastopol City Election Commission, March 7, 1927 was deprived of his voting rights as a trader , and his wife as her husband izhdivenka merchant .He started his working life to employment in 1901 at age 12 in 1911 , Joseph Isaakovich Mangupli was called up for military service as a private soldier in the 53rd Infantry Regiment. During the First World War, was captured and was in Austria until 1918.Finally, after repeated refusals , taking testimony from witnesses , receiving a response from Rife that patents and registration certificate to trade as a percentage of taxable , not pick and information together with a national trade Bakshi not available,February 2, 1930 commission to consider complaints and petitions of citizens on the restoration of voting rights upheld the complaint and ruled them Mangupli with his wife from the list of disenfranchised [17]After returning home , being as he wrote in a miserable condition , worked as a shoemaker , then a workshop for manufacturing of suitcases industrial cooperative road maintenance, and after the liquidation of the farm in 1925, selling 3 months of different shoe a trifle on the patent . Three years of life had been spent on it to defend their right to vote.

 

at the hands of the Nazis in 1942 at 50 years of age when he died Zanis Gregory Ruvimovich . It is doubtful that the grave is his ashes , the inscription of his death is made at the grave of his father , who died in the 65- year-old in 1930 [18].During the defense of the city have died Vanshtein Rebecca Elevna 1887 of birth, and her son, Ilya Zelmanovich , born in 1910 , Golomshtok Naham Vulfovich and Henoch Berkowitz , who died in 1942, as well as Dadiomov Samuil and Kushlin Nose Shlemovich [19]. The war claimed the lives of the sons of the family Raskin.December 6, 1941 at the age of 19 killed Saul L. , his brother, Israel L. died July 10, 1944 at the age of 24 years. It was only in 1964, aged 79 , died the death of the surviving children of a family Ruskin Lion Izrailevich [20].From enemy bombs killed at 1942 Shalom Maria Markovna, three more people with this surname had been shot by the Germans , including 80-year Baniamin Isaakovich, podzahoronenny to his daughter , who died in 1926 [ 21]. Even before the Germans arrived , December 12, 1941 , the 74th year of life died Yusufov Sultan [22].In July 1942, was shot Zolotar Samuilovna Esther , lived 71 years. In 1921 her husband died , leaving his family of seven human - rights. From 1925 to 1928 in the booth at the market she had to sell small haberdashery . This was the reason for deprivation of voting rights.It did not help that she worked as a seamstress shop wardrobe , as well as the fact that she was dependent on the son-in - voenporta working , and that the witnesses Slutsky, Abramov , Feldman, Hershkowitz and even a member of the Komsomol Shikatovskaya showed that she did not use hired labor.September 26, 1931 issued its verdict last three Sebastopol City Council : ... request leave without consequences [ 24]. April 14, 1945 died and was buried in the cemetery Abraham Polonsky Vulfovich .In 58 years of age he could no longer be called up for military service may , after the liberation of Sevastopol returned to his native city , which once visited the Main Choral Synagogue , and found the final resting place here .

 

 

The cemetery remained a large burial board , which lists , and possibly under it and buried eight people from one big Jewish family Slutskys Sevastopol . Almost all of them at different times lived in his own ancestral house, built by Naum Slutsky Isaakovich - member of Defence of Sebastopol 1854 - 1855 gg. , On the street.Ochakovskaya , house number 23 [24]. He was a philistine , had a farm , which the German occupation in 1918 caused damage amounting to 655 rubles, a juror with property qualifications was 900 rubles. Family is , except him, a tailor, two locksmiths , housewives , knitting scarves and socks and underwear chinivshie in tough 1920s .One member of the family, Nahum Isaakovich, engaged in trade , for the whole extended family in the late 1920s has been denied voting rights.The request for reinstatement was refused , they were to be evicted from Sebastopol , but only in 1930 by Nahum Isaakovich Jewish resettlement society Revival moved to the ground in Feodosia , all family members , including migrant, were restored voting rights .How long he lived there with his wife Anna Leontievna is unknown, but is buried in the Jewish cemetery in Sevastopol along with other family members. Five people from this family were murdered by the Nazis. Now in their living descendants [25].

survived three graves of members not less numerous than the Slutsky family, Spivak ( Spevak ).Among them were merchants and tradesmen , who were born in the second half of the nineteenth century . In the 1920s, they were parishioners of the main synagogue . Currently, some urban lore proposed version , that one of Vladimir Spivakov , the shop owner , who lived in Balaclava , a native grandfather of the famous violinist Vladimir Spivakov.

 

and identified discrepancies in records on the gravestones . At the tomb of the Pura Alikhanov stated that he died January 15, 1937 at 45 year of age ( mean birth year 1892 or 1893).However, in his statement to the Election Commission of Sebastopol , he wrote his own date of birth - 1891 , and reported that in 1912 he was called up for military service in the 152nd Regiment of the Taman . During the First World War at the end of 1914 was captured and was interned in Germany, where he remained until 1919.After returning home volunteered for the Red Army in 1921 and was discharged.Having spent a little clerk in the Council of the economy of the city of Sevastopol , and then attended to different break-in was part owner of the mill, which he said provided an opportunity for continued existence , but for which he was deprived of voting rights in 1926 [ 26].Act on the survey for the correct application of selling prices for construction materials, from July 20, 1933 was written on the reverse side of the application of an initial payment in the post and telegraph office savings bank May 22, 1899 by Moses Pantofelya Borisovich, born in 1878 ( at the tomb in 1879 ) place of birth - Sebastopol , tradesman ,bookbinder , living on the street ,Discrepancy in the date of birth on documents and on the grave of Moses Pantofelya Borisovich , who died in 1950, was set in an unexpected way . Big Sea in the house Ponyschitenko . His contribution was 2 rubles and issued a book for the number 4316 the first category [27].

The report covers only a few details about the people buried in a Jewish cemetery .Work continues on this theme , but some members of the archive, hoping that the city authorities and Jewish organizations will endeavor to ensure that the historic monument of the city was saved, and possibly restored as part of the gravestones dumped in the grounds .

 

Vladimir Krestyannikov .

Natalya Tereshchuk .

/ Sevastopol / .

 

 

LITERATURE.

1. Sumarokov . Escape the Crimean judge. - SPb. - 1803 . - S. 195.

2. Description of the defense of Sevastopol . - St. Petersburg - 1863 . - Part 1 - S. 76.

3. State Archives of Sevastopol (the GAGS ). - F. P -567 . 15. - Op . 1. - D. 8. - L. 16, m / n number 362. - L. 1.

6. Crimean Gazette . - 1897 . August 14.

7. GAGS . - F. P -79. - Op . - L. 89.

10. Ibid. - F. 27. - Op . 1. - D. 5. - L. 5 vol.

11. Ibid. - F. P -567 . - Op . 6. - D. 29. Ibid. - F. P -79. - Op . 2 liters. - D. 342; F. P -567 . - Op . 6. - D. 29. - L. 98.

15. Ibid. - F. P -79. - Op . 2 liters. 29. - L. 93.

19. Ibid. - LL. 87, 90 , 92, 97.

20. Ibid. - LL. 103 - 104.

21. Ibid. - L. 111.

22. P -79. - Op . 2 liters. - DD . 543, 2503, 2530, 2539 , 2545 , Dawn . - 2004 . - April-May .

26. Ibid. - F. P -79. - Op . 2 liters. - D. 924 , F. P -567 . - Op .