-Istanbul until 1930. Constantinople , the biggest city , seaport, industrial and large commercial and cultural center of Turkey , for centuries the former capital of the Byzantine Empire and later the Ottoman Empire.
The city is located on the shores of the Bosphorus.
The first known mention of the town date back to 659 BC , when the Asian side of the Bosphorus were first Greek settlers from Megara - they became a colony of Chalcedon , now a district of Kadıköy .
Immediately the city of Byzantium was founded in 667 BC , the Byzantine Empire from Megara , an ancient Greek city, located near Athens .
In 324 , Emperor Constantine the Great, expanding and rebuilding the Byzantine Empire, after six years of hard work has increased the area of the city several times , transfers the capital of the Roman Empire in the city on the Bosphorus and be named it New Rome , Constantinople .
After the collapse of the empire of Constantinople became the capital of the Byzantine Empire.
For a thousand years Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire , the largest center of Eastern Christianity, one of the largest cities in the world . In 1204, was sacked by the crusaders, who set it up to 1261 the Latin Empire . Recovered under the authority of the Byzantine Empire Palaeologus dynasty lasted until 1453 , when the city was captured by the Turks.Sultan Mehmet II proclaimed the city the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1930godu city received its present name .
museums and historical sights of Istanbul on the importance of ancient semi- equivalent to all historical treasures and relics , available in Turkey.Istanbul - a city which intersect East and West, Asia and Europe , Islam and Christianity. The city , which is intimately intertwined and coexist different cultures and religions .
Istanbul being the capital of several states at once : the Eastern Roman , Byzantine and Ottoman Empire , is a monument of different civilizations.With the advent of each new state capital, began construction of grandiose architectural monuments, the authors were prominent architects. The most important historical and tourist wealth of Istanbul are located in the heart of the historical peninsula , in areas such as city and Sarayburnu Sultanahmet .In periods of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman imperatorstv these areas were the soul of the city , a place of magnificent construction of imperial palaces . The largest building of churches, grandiose mosques and large museums are also located in these districts. Two hills ( seven ), also built in the center of this region of the city.On a hill built Topkapi Palace, Sultanahmet Mosque on the other . Here are the Hippodrome, the city center housed in the Byzantine and Ottoman periods.To visit the best museums in Istanbul, located close to each other , and among them are the monuments of culture as the Hagia Sophia Museum , Topkapi Palace , Blue Mosque ( Sultan Ahmet Mosque ), Archeological Museum , Museum of Turkish and Islamic culture, Mosaic Museum, take a few days.
Given the multinational character of the locals are always helpful to know how to behave in a foreign country. Therefore recommend that you read the advice seasoned travelers : http://turist. rbc. ru/article/13/04/2010/188661.